A Segment of DNA that Codes for 16S Ribosomal RNA

A Visual Comparison between Eleven Species of Gram-Negative Bacteria

Sequences taken from the GenBank database.


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The organisms are as follows:

  • Neisseria sicca – the only gram-negative coccus considered in Bacteriology 102.
  • Pseudomonas fluorescens – a non-fermentative rod.
  • Three enteric-like organisms: Vibrio cholerae, Photobacterium phosphoreum and Plesiomonas shigelloides.
  • Three relatively obscure enterics: our new organism (shown by initials "AH" as I am not inclined toward saying much about it until it is published),  Budvicia aquatica and Edwardsiella tarda.
  • Escherichia coli – the archetypal enteric – with two closely-related species, Shigella dysenteriae and Escherichia hermannii.

"Scrolling down memory lane..."

Neisseria sicca gcgagtggcgaacgggtgagtaacatatcggaacgtaccgagcagtgggggataactaatcgaaagattagctaataccgcatatttcttgaggaagaaagcaggggaccatttggccttgcgctgtttgagcggccgatatctgattagctggttggtggggtaaaggcctaccaaggcgacgatcagtagcgggtctgagaggatgatccgccacactgggactgagacacggcccagactcctacgggaggcagcagtggggaattttggacaatgggcgcaagcctgatccagccatgccgcgtgtctgaagaaggccttcgggttgtaaaggacttttgtcagggaagaaaaagatagggttaatacccctgtctgatgacggtacctgaagaataagcaccggctaactacgtgccagcagccgcggtaatacgtagggtgcgagcgttaatcggaattactgggcgtaaagcgggcgcagacggttacttaagcaggatgtgaaatccccgggctcaacccgggaactgcgttctgaactgggtgactagagtgtgtcagagggaggtagaattccacgtgtagcagtgaaatgcgtagagatgtggaggaataccgatggcgaaggcagcctcctgggatagcactgacgttcatgcccgaaagcgtgggtagcaaacaggattagataccctggtagtccacgccctaaacgatgtcgattagctgttgggcagcttgactgcttagtagcgaagctaacgcgtgaaatcgaccgcctggggagtacggtcgcaagattaaaactcaaaggaattgacggggacccgcacaagcggtggatgatgtggattaattcgatgcaacgcgaagaaccttacctggtcttgacatgtacggaaccctccagagacggaggggtgccttcgggagccgtaacacaggtgctgcatggctgtcgtcagctcgtgtcgtgagatgttgggttaagtcccgcaacgagcgcaacccttgtcattagttgccatcat.taa.gttgggcactctaatgagactgccggtgacaagccggaggaaggtggggatgacgtcaagtcctcatggcccttatgaccagggcttcacacgtcatacaatggtcggtacagagggtagccaagccgcgaggtggagccaatctcacaaaaccgatcgtagtccggattgcactctgcaactcgagtgcatgaagtcggaatcgctagtaatcgcaggtcagcatactgcggtgaatacgttcccgggtcttgtacacaccgccc
Pseudomonas fluorescens gagagcggcggacgggtgagtaaagcctaggaatctgcctggtagtgggggataacgttcggaaacggacgctaataccgcatacgtcctacgggagaaagcaggggaccttcgggccttgcgctatcagatgagcccaggtcggattagctagttggtgaggtagtggctcaccaaggcgacgatccgtaactggtctgagaggatgatcagtcacactggaactgagacacggtccagactcctacgggaggcagcagtggggaatattggacaatgggcgaaagcctgatccagccatgccgcgtgtgtgaagaaggtcttcggattgtaaagcactttaagttgggaggaagggcattaacctaatacgttagtgttttgacgttaccgacagaataagcaccggctaactctgtgccagcagccgcggtaatacagagggtgcaagcgttaatcggaattactgggcgtaaagcgcgcgtaggtggtttgttaagttggatgtgaaatccccgggctcaacctgggaactgcattcaaaactgactgactagagtatggtagagggtggtggaatttcctgtgtagcggtgaaatgcgtagatataggaaggaacaccagtggcgaaggcgaccacctggactaatactgacactgaggtgcgaaagcgtggggagcaaacaggattagataccctggtagtccacgccgtaaacgatgtcaactagccgttgggagccttgagctcttagtggcgcagctaacgcattaagttgaccgcctggggagtacggccgcaaggttaaaactcaaatgaattgacgggggcccgcacaagcggtggagcatgtggtttaattcgaagcaacgcgaagaaccttaccaggccttgacatccaatgaactttctagagatagattggtgccttcgggaacattgagacaggtgctgcatggctgtcgtcagctcgtgtcgtgagatgttgggttaagtcccgtaacgagcgcaacccttgtccttagttaccagcacgtaatggtgggcactctaaggagactgccggtgacaaaccggaggaaggtggggatgacgtcaagtcatcatggcccttacggcctgggctacacacgtgctacaatggtcggtacagagggttgccaaaccgcgaggtggagctaatcccacaaaaccgatcgtagtccggatcgcagtctgcaactcgactgcgtgaagtcggaatcgctagtaatcgcgaatcagaatgtcgcggtgaatacgttcccgggccttgtacacaccgccc
Vibrio cholerae gcgagcggcggacgggtgagtaatgcctgggaaattgcccggtagagggggataaccattggaaacgatggctaataccgcataacctcgcaagagcaaagcaggggaccttcgggccttgcgctaccggatatgcccaggtgggattagctagttggtgaggtaagggctcaccaaggcgacgatccctagctggtctgagaggatgatcagccacactggaactgagacacggtccagactcctacgggaggcagcagtggggaatattgcacaatgggcgcaagcctgatgcagccatgccgcgtgtatgaagaaggccttcgggttgtaaagtactttcagtagggaggaaggtggttaagttaataccttaatcatttgacgttacctacagaagaagcaccggctaactccgtgccagcagccgcggtaatacggagggtgcaagcgttaatcggaattactgggcgtaaagcgcatgcaggtggtttgttaagtcagatgtgaaagccctgggctcaacctaggaatcgcatttgaaactgacaagctagagtactgtagaggggggtagaatttcaggtgtagcggtgaaatgcgtagagatctgaaggaataccggtggcgaaggcggccccctggacagatactgacactcagatgcgaaagcgtggggagcaaacaggattagataccctggtagtccacgccgtaaacgatgtctacttggaggttgtgccctagagtcgtggctttcggagctaacgcgttaagtagaccgcctggggagtacggtcgcaagattaaaactcaaatgaattgacgggggnccgcacaagcggtggagcatgtggtttaattcganncaacgcgaagaaccttacctactcttgacatccagagaatctagcggagacgctggagtgccttcgggagctctgagacaggtgctgcatggctgtcgtcagctcgtgttgtgaaatgttgggttaagtcccgcaacgagcgcaacccttatccttgtttgccagcacgtaatggtgggaactccagggagactgccggtgataaaccggaggaaggtggggacgacgtcaagtcatcatggcccttacgagtagggctacacacgtgctacaatggcgtatacagagggcagcgataccgcgaggtggagcgaatctcacaaagtacgtcgtagtccggattggagtctgcaactcgactccatgaagtcggaatcgctagtaatcgcaaatcagaatgttgcggtgaatacgttcccgggccttgtacacaccgccc
Photobacterium phosphoreum acgagcggcggacgggtgagtaatgcctgggaatataccctgatgtgggggataactattggaaacgatagctaataccgcataatctcttcggagcaaagagggggaccttcgggcctctcgcgtcaggattagcccaggtgggattagctagttggtggggtaatggctcaccaaggcgacgatccctagctggtctgagaggatgatcagccacactggaactgagacacggtccagactcctacgggaggcagcagtggggaatattgcacaatgggggaaaccctgatgcagccatgccgcgtgtatgaagaaggccttcgggttgtaaagtactttcagttgtgaggaaggcgttggagttaatagctttagcgtttgacgttagcaacagaagaagcaccggctaactccgtgccagcagccgcggtaatacggagggtgcgagcgttaatcggaattactgggcgtaaagcgcatgcaggcggtctgttaagcaagatgtgaaagcccggggctcaacctcggaacagcattttgaactggcagactagagtcttgtagaggggggtagaatttcaggtgtagcggtgaaatgcgtagagatctgaaggaataccggtggcgaaggcggccccctggacaaagactgacgctcagatgcgaaagcgtggggagcaaacaggattagataccctggtagtccacgccgtaaacgatgtctacttgaaggttgtggccttgagccgtggctttcggagctaacgcgttaagtagaccgcctggggagtacggtcgcaagattaaaactcaaatgaattgacgggggcccgcacaagcggtggagcatgtggtttaattcgatgcaacgcgaagaaccttacctactcttgacatccagagaattcgctagagatagcttagtgccttcgggaactctgagacaggtgctgcatggctgtcgtcagctcgtgttgtgaaatgttgggttaagtcccgcaacgagcgcaacccttatccttgtttgccagcacgtaatggtgggaactccagggagactgccggtgataaaccggaggaaggtggggacgacgtcaagtcatcatggcccttacgagtagggctacacacgtgctacaatggcgtatacagagggctgcaagctagcgatagtgagcgaatcccacaaagtacgtcgtagtccggattggagtctgcaactcgactccatgaagtcggaatcgctagtaatcgtgaatcagaatgtcacggtgaatacgttcccgggccttgtacacaccgccc
Plesiomonas shigelloides acgagcggcggacgggtgagtaatgcctggggatctgcccgatagagggggataactacgggaaactgtagctaataccgcataatgtctacggaccaaagtgggggctcttcggacctcatgctatcggatgaacccaggtgggattagctagttggtgaggtaatggctcaccaaggcgacgatctctaactggtttgagagaatgaccagtcacactggaactgagacacggtccagactcctacgggaggcagcagtggggaatattgcacaatgggcgcaagcctgatgcagccatgccgcgtgtgtgaagaaggccttcgggttgtaaagcactttcagcggggaggaagggtcactagttaatacctagtggcattgacgttactcgcagaagaagcaccggctaactccgtgccagcagccgcggtaatacggagggtgcaagcgttaatcggaattactgggcgtaaagcgcacgcaggcggtttgttaagtcagatgtgaaatccccgagctcaacttgggaactgcatttgaaactggcaagctagagtcttgtagaggggggtagaattccaggtgtagcggtgaaatgcgtagagatctggaggaataccggtggcgaaggcggccccctggacaaagactgacgctcaggtgcgaaagcgtggggagcaaacaggattagataccctggtagtccacgctgtaaacgatgtcgatttggaggttgtgcccttgaggcgtggcttccggagctaacgcgttaaatcgaccgcctggggagtacggccgcaaggttaaaactcaaatgaattgacgggggnccgcacaagcggtggagcatgtggtttaattcgatgcancgcgaagaaccttacctactcttgacatccacagaacnttccagagatggattggtgccttcgggaactctgagacaggtgctgcatggctgtcgtcagctcgtgttgtgaaatgttgggttaagtcccgcaacgagcgcaacccttatcctttgttgccagcgattc.ggtcgggaactcaaaggagactgccggtgataaaccggaggaaggtggggatgacgtcaagtcatcatggcccttacgagtagggctacacacgtgctacaatggcatatacaaagggcggcaagctagcgatagtgagcgaatcccataaagtatgtcgtagtccggattggagtctgcaactcgactccatgaagtcggaatcgctagtaatcgcggatcagaatgccgcggtgaatacgttcccgggccttgtacacaccgccc
"AH" (our new organism) gcgagcggcggacgggtgagtaatgtctggggatctgcctgatggagggggataactactggaaacggtagctaataccgcataacgtcgcaagaccaaagcgggggaccttagggcctcgcgccatcagatgaacccagatgggattagctagtaggtggggtaatggctcacctaggcgacgatccctaactggtctgagaggatgaccagtcacactgggactgagacacggcccagactcctacgggaggcagcagtggggaatattgcacaatgggcgcaagcctgatgcagccatgccgcgtgtgtgaagaaggccttcgggttgtaaagcactttcagtgaggaggaaggcgttgcagttaatagctgtagcgattgacgttactcacagaagaagcaccggctaactccgtgccagcagccgcggtaatacggagggtgcaagcgttaatcggaattactgggcgtaaagcgcacgcaggcggtttgttaagtcagatgtgaaatccccgggctcaacctgggaactgcatttgaaactggcaggctagagtctcgtagaggggggtagaattccaggtgtagcggtgaaatgcgtagagatctggaggaataccggtggcgaaggcggccccctggacgaagactgacgctcaggtgcga.agcgtggggagcaaacaggattagataccctggtagtccacgctgtaaacgatgtcgatttggaggttgtgcccttgaggcgtggcttccggagctaacgcgttaaatcgaccgcctggggagtacggccgcaaggttaaaactcaaatgaattgacgggggcccgcacaagcggtggagcatgtggtttaattcgatgcaacgcgaagaaccttacctactcttgacatccagagaaggttccagagatgggactgtgccttcgggagctctgagacaggtgctgcatggctgtcgtcagctcgtgttgtgaaatgttgggttaagtcccgcaacgagcgcaacccttatcctttgttgccagc.acttcgggtgggaactcaagggagactgccggtgataaaccggaggaaggtggggatgacgtcaagtcatcatggcccttacgagtagggctacacacgtgctacaatggcgcatacaaagagaagcgaacttgcgagagtaagcggacctcataaagtgcgtcgtagtccggattggagtctgcaactcgactccatgaagtcggaatcgctagtaatcgtagatcagaatgctacggtgaatacgtccccgggccttgtacacaccgccc
Budvicia aquatica gcgagcggcggacgggtgagtaatgtctggggatctgcctgatggagggggataactactggaaacggtagctaataccgcgtaacgtcgaaagaccaaagcgggggaccttcgggcctcgcgccatcagatgaacccagatgggattagctagtaggtggggtaatggctcacctaggcgacgatctctaactggtctgagaggatgaccagtcacactgggactgagacacggcccagactcctacgggaggcagcagtggggaatattgcacaatgggcgcaagcctgatgcagccatgccgcgtgtgtgaagaaggccttcgggttgtaaagcactttcagcgaggaggaaggcgttgtagttaatagctgcaagcattgacgttactcgcagaagaagcaccggctaactccgtgccagcagccgcggtaatacggagggtgcaagcgttaatcggaattactgggcgtaaagcgcacgcaggcggtttgttaagtcagatgtgaaatccccgcgcttaacgtgggaactgcatttgaaactggcaagctagagtcttgtagaggggggtagaattccatgtgtagcggtgaaatgcgtagagatgtggaggaataccggtggcgaaggcggccccctggacaaagactgacgctcaggtgcgaaagcgtggggagcaaacaggattagataccctggtagtccacgctgtaaacgatgtcgatttggaggttgtgggcatgacccgtggcttccggagctaacgcgttaaatcgaccgcctggggagtacggccgcaaggttaaaactcaaatgaattgacgggggcccgcacaagcggtggagcatgtggtttaattcgatgcaacgcgaagaaccttacctactcttgacatccagagaatttagcagagatgctttagtgccttcgggaactctgagacaggtgctgcatggctgtcgtcagctcgtgttgtgaaatgttgggttaagtcccgcaacgagcgcaacccttatcctttgttgccagcgagtaatgtcgggaactcaaaggagactgccggtgataaaccggaggaaggtggggatgacgtcaagtcatcatggcccttacgagtagggctacacacgtgctacaatggcgcatacaaagtgaagcgaactcgcgagagtaagcggaccacataaagtgcgtcgtagtccggatcggagtctgcaactcgactccgtgaagtcggaatcgctagtaatcgtagatcagaatgctacggtgaatacgttcccgggccttgtacacaccgccc
Edwardsiella tarda acgagcggcggacgggtgagtaatgtctggggatctgcctgatggagggggataactactggaaacggtagctaataccgcataacgtcgcaagaccaaagtgggggaccttcgggcctcatgccatcagatgaacccagatgggattagctagtaggtgaggtaatggctcacctaggcgacgatccctagctggtctgagaggatgaccagccacactggaactgagacacggtccagactcctacgggaggcagcagtggggaatattgcacaatgggcgcaagcctgatgcagccatgccgcgtgtatgaagaaggccttcgggttgtaaagtactttcagtagggaggaaggtgtncgtgttaatagcacgtacaattgacgttacctacagaagaagcaccggctaactccgtgccagcagccgcggtaatacggagggtgcaagcgttaatcggaattactgggcgtaaagcgcacgcaggcggtttgttaagttggatgtgaaatccccgggcttaacctgggaactgcatccaagactggcaagctagagtctcgtagagggaggtagaattccaggtgtagcggtgaaatgcgtagagatctggaggaataccggtggcgaaggcggcctcctggacgaagactgacgctcaggtgcgaaagcgtggggagcaaacaggattagataccctggtagtccacgctgtaaacgatgtcgatttggaggttgtgcccttgaggcgtggcttccgaagctaacgcgttaaatcgaccgcctggggagtacggccgcaaggttaaaactcaaatgaattgacgggggcccgcacaagcggtggagcatgtggtttaattcgatgcaacgcgaagaaccttacctactcttgacatccagcgaatcctgtagagatacgggagtgccttcgggaacgctgagacaggtgctgcatggctgtcgtcagctcgtgttgtgaaatgttgggttaagtcccgcaacgagcgcaacccttatcctttgttgccagcg.gttcggccgggaactcaaaggagactgccagtgataaactggaggaaggtggggatgacgtcaagtcatcatggcccttacgagtagggctacacacgtgctacaatggcgtatacaaagagaagcgacctcgcgagagcaagcggacctcataaagtacgtcgtagtccggattggagtctgcaactcgactccatgaagtcggaatcgctagtaatcgtggatcagaatgccacggtgaatacgttcccgggccttgtacacaccgccc
Shigella dysenteriae acgagtggcggacgggtgagtaatgtctgggaaactgcctgatggagggggataactactggaaacggtagctaataccgcataacgtcgcaagaccaaagagggggaccttcgggcctcttgccatcggatgtgcccagatgggattagctagtaggtggggtaacggctcacctaggcgacgatccctagctggtctgagaggatgaccagccacactggaactgagacacggtccagactcctacgggaggcagcagtggggaatattgcacaatgggcgcaagcctgatgcagccatgccgcgtgtatgaagaaggccttcgggttgtaaagtactttcagcggggaggaagggagtaaagttaatacctttgctcattgacgttacccgcagaagaagcaccggctaactccgtgccagcagccgcggtaatacggagggtgcaagcgttaatcggaattactgggcgtaaagcgcacgcaggcggtttgttaagtcagatgtgaaatccccgggctcaacctgggaactgcatctgatactggcaagcttgagtctcgtagaggggggtagaattccaggtgtagcggtgaaatgcgtagagatctggaggaataccggtggcgaaggcggccccctggacgaaaactgacgctcaggtgcgaaagcgtggggagcaaacaggattagataccctggtagtccacgccgtaaacgatgtcgacttggaggttgtgcccttgaggcgtggcttccggagctaacgcgttaagtcgaccgcctggggagtacggccgcaaggttaaaactcaaatgaattgacgggggcccgcacaagcggtggagcatgtggtttaattcgatgcaacgcgaagaaccttacctggtcttgacatccacagaaccttgtagagatacgagggtgccttcgggaactgtgagacaggtgctgcatggctgtcgtcagctcgtgttgtgaaatgttgggttaagtcccgcaacgagcgcaacccttatcctttgttgccagcg.gtccggccgggaactcaaaggagactgccagtgataaactggaggaaggtggggatgacgtcaagtcatcatggcccttacgaccagggctacacacgtgctacaatggcgcatacaaagagaagcgacctcgcgagagcaagcggacctcataaagtgcgtcgtagtccggattggagtctgcaactcgactccatgaagtcggaatcgctagtaatcgtggatcagaatgtcacggtgaatacgttcccgggccttgtacacaccgccc
Escherichia coli acgagtggcggacgggtgagtaatgtctgggaaactgcctgatggagggggataactactggaaacggtagctaataccgcataacgtcgcaagaccaaagagggggaccttcgggcctcttgccatcggatgtgcccagatgggattagctagtaggtggggtaacggctcacctaggcgacgatccctagctggtctgagaggatgaccagccacactggaactgagacacggtccagactcctacgggaggcagcagtggggaatattgcacaatgggcgcaagcctgatgcagccatgccgcgtgtatgaagaaggccttcgggttgtaaagtactttcagcggggaggaagggagtaaagttaatacctttgctcattgacgttacccgcagaagaagcaccggctaactccgtgccagcagccgcggtaatacggagggtgcaagcgttaatcggaattactgggcgtaaagcgcacgcaggcggtttgttaagtcagatgtgaaatccccgggctcaacctgggaactgcatctgatactggcaagcttgagtctcgtagaggggggtagaattccaggtgtagcggtgaaatgcgtagagatctggaggaataccggtggcgaaggcggccccctggacgaagactgacgctcaggtgcgaaagcgtggggagcaaacaggattagataccctggtagtccacgccgtaaacgatgtcgacttggaggttgtgcccttgaggcgtggcttccggagctaacgcgttaagtcgaccgcctggggagtacggccgcaaggttaaaactcaaatgaattgacgggggcccgcacaagcggtggagcatgtggtttaattcgatgcaacgcgaagaaccttacctggtcttgacatccacggaagttttcagagatgagaatgtgccttcgggaaccgtgagacaggtgctgcatggctgtcgtcagctcgtgttgtgaaatgttgggttaagtcccgcaacgagcgcaacccttatcctttgttgccagcg.gtccggccgggaactcaaaggagactgccagtgataaactggaggaaggtggggatgacgtcaagtcatcatggcccttacgaccagggctacacacgtgctacaatggcgcatacaaagagaagcgacctcgcgagagcaagcggacctcataaagtgcgtcgtagtccggattggagtctgcaactcgactccatgaagtcggaatcgctagtaatcgtggatcagaatgccacggtgaatacgttcccgggccttgtacacaccgccc
Escherichia hermannii acgagtggcggacgggtgagtaatgtctggggatctgcctgatggagggggataactactggaaacggtagctaataccgcataacgtcgcaagaccaaagagggggaccttcgggcctcttgccatcagatgaacccagatgggattagctagtaggtggggtaacggctcacctaggcgacgatccctagctggtctgagaggatgaccagccacactggaactgagacacg.tccagactcctacgggaggcagcagtggggaatattgcacaatgggcgcaagcctgatgcagccatgccgcgtgtatgaagaaggc.ttcgggttgtaaagtactttcagcggggaggaagg.cgatcggttaataaccgcgtcgattgacgttacccgcagaagaagcaccggctaactccgtgccagcagccgcggtaatacggagggtgcaagcgttaatcggaattactgggcgtaaagcgcagcgaggcggtctgtcaagtcggatgtgaaatccccgggctcaacctgggaactgcatccgaaactggcaggcttgagtcttgtagaggggggtagaattccaggtgtagcggtgaaatgcgtagagatctggaggaataccggtggcgaaggcggccccctggacaaagactgacgctcaggtgcgaaagcgtggggagcaaacaggattagataccctggtagtccacgccgtaaacgatgtcgacttggaggttgtgcccttgaggcgtggcttccggacgtaacgcgttaagtcgaccgcctggggagtacggccgcaaggttaaaactcaaatgaattgacgggggcc.gcacaagcggtggagcatgtggtttaattcgatgcaacgcgaagaaccttacctggtcttgacatccacagaactttccagagatggattggtg.cttcgggaactgtgagacaggtgctgcatggctgtcgtcagctcgtgttgtgaaatgttgggttaagtcccgcaacgagcgcaacccttatcctttgttgccagcg.gtccggccgggaactcaaaggagactgccagtgataaactggaggaaggtggggatgacgtcaagtcatcatagcccttacgaccagggctacacacgtgctacaatggcgcatacaaagagaagcgaactcgcgagagcaagcggacctcataaagtgcgtcgtagtccggattggagtctgcaactcgactccatgaagtcggaatcgctagtaatcgtggatcagaatgccacggtgaatacgttcccgggccttgtacacaccgc.c


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John Lindquist:  new homepage, complete site outline.
Department of Bacteriology, U.W.-Madison